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Ty Branaman gives the Kalos apprentices a lesson on transformers, inductance, and common electrical issues. (Check out Ty’s YouTube channel at
The compared number of wraps from one side of an electromagnetic coil to the other represents a ratio. Each wrap of an electromagnetic coil strengthens the magnetic field of the energized iron core. (The alternating current energizes the iron core, which becomes magnetized.) The wires on the primary don’t touch the wires of the secondary because the electricity transfers via the magnetic field.
There is one type of transformer where the primary and secondary have the same number of wraps. That component is the isolation transformer. The isolation transformer does a good job of “cleaning” power out and suppressing bad sine waves or electrical noise. We almost never use isolation transformers in the HVAC industry, but musical instrument amplifiers use them quite often.
Transformers can “step up” or “step down” to a different voltage level. We mostly step the voltage down in HVAC, but transformers must step the voltage up in gas furnaces (up to around 10,000 volts!).
Power (wattage) stays the same from one side of the transformer to the other. Remember that watts are made up of the volts multiplied by the amps. A step-down transformer may reduce the voltage, but the amperage will rise to keep the same overall wattage. Inversely, a step-up transformer may reduce the amperage to raise the voltage from one side of the transformer to the other.
Transformers have a VA (volt-amp) rating, also known as a watt rating. That rating can tell you how much power it can transfer from one side to another. For example, a transformer with a VA rating of 25 will NOT have the power to step the voltage up to 10,000 volts in a gas furnace; in order to boost the voltage that high, you would be left with a fraction of an amp, which is just not possible.
A fuse can protect your amp flow (which prevents blown transformers). For that reason, you should NEVER replace a transformer without adding a fuse. If you come across a blown fuse, you’ll want to figure out what killed the fuse before you add a new one. The most probable cause of a blown fuse is short to ground (such as from wire rubouts or sloppily stripping wire).
Read all the tech tips, take the quizzes, and find our handy calculators at

This video is the next in our series from ty branaman. He came out to our apprenticeship program and taught about electrical basics, so in this video he covers transformers induction as well as some common electrical issues. If you haven't already done so, please go down into the description, click the link to ty's channel and subscribe and view his videos. They really are excellent, big thanks to tai for giving this class at lake technical college in eustis florida now earlier today, brian was talking about electromagnets, uh, coils and transformers we're going to continue to talk about transformers and actually today, we're talking about transformers the number of Wraps between one to another, you have a ratio between one side to the other.

So here i have my transformer and its job is to reduce the voltage, but it doesn't know anything it's just wraps of wire. Now, look you see how this wire is wrapped around right here. You guys see that and there's another set of coil wrapped below it. It's got less wrap tip it's a step down transformer.

It's got less grabs in the bottom good good. Now. Look here where wires are coming out of one side and the other wires are going on the other side. Did you guys know that the wires from the primary power in do not actually touch the wires coming out of the secondary coming out? They don't touch, they don't touch at all.

Did you guys know that this is what's cool about electricity when we talk about electricity and magnetism? So if i send a electricity through a coil of wire, my primary is a cold wire. If i send electricity to this coil of wire, what's happening, what am i creating electromagnetic electromagnet? Yes, electromagnet, i'm creating an electromagnet. Now, what's that electromagnet doing to this iron core right here, anybody know magnetizing it. It's magnetizing it! It's magnetized! That's alternate current! So it's north south, north south north south, but it's energizing, this magnetic field electrical, my magnetic field, is essentially moving back and forth 60 times a second.

I can't move my finger that fast follow me now. What happens when i send a magnet through a coil of wire? I make electricity so to speak. So here's what's happening. My second coil of wire, i'm actually pushing a magnetic field through the coil of wire.

Oh this guy nodded. You got it. That's pretty cool! No! Oh you're killing me so if i have the primary and i'm pushing electricity through it, i'm actually creating a magnetic field. The secondary i'm pushing a magnet through a cooler wire.

So what's it doing magnetic creating my electromagnet, so i'm using that magnetic field to create electricity. Now the number of wraps tell me how strong my my field is going in versus how many wraps i have how strong i'm picking up coming out. What happened if i had the same number of wraps on one side and the same number of wraps on the other side, you're going to have the same voltage? Would we ever do that? The same number of wraps on one side, the same number wraps in another contact room. No for nothing! No! I like your answer, but that's not what i'm looking for what not for nothing.

What do you think would we ever have the same number, 240, yen and 240 out? Whatever i say, is wrong? No, i don't care that it's wrong. I love the fact you're participating, i don't care. I love that you're answering that's what i can't think of anything. Okay, good, i like that.

That's a good answer! That's a good answer. What do you think well? Why would you need it if you're gon na get 240 out here? Why would you even need i love it? Why would you even need it? Why would you even need it? Why would you even need it? I don't think they make that. Do they make that um, i'm gon na go with. Yes, yes is the answer.

Yes, it's called an isolation transformer and it actually works very well at cleaning power out right if you have surges, if you have different types of bad power or bad sine waves in there, it works really well at smoothing out or cleaning that power out you'll see. Sometimes amplifiers or musical instrument stuff will have isolation transformers for the power in so they don't contaminate the music or the other sounds there's many times. It will actually use isolation, transformers fairly rare that we'll see them in hiv, but it is now what's more important. Is stepping it down? Do we ever step it down? Yes, yes, here we're stepping it down to a lower voltage now.

Do we ever step it up in hvac? Would you ever need it? It's not an iceberg, not an h! Everybody agree. Would you step it up? Is that ever a thing i haven't seen it you haven't seen it? Have you seen it seen it? No, no bert. Have you ever seen it where you step it up, you can you say? Yes, where would you step it up? I would step it up in an electronic air, cleaner, oh electronically, that wasn't where i was going. I'm caught off guard.

Yes, that's exactly right! You would increase the voltage, have it jump and zap the air create some ozone. Yes, that's one option. I've seen it in automobiles what about with a yes, you definitely have some in automobiles. The coil creates high voltage to make the spark jump to ignite the gas fuel mixture, not the diesel, though, but yes, what about a gas furnace? Would you ever need it in a gas furnace? Yes, because you do have in question the question? Yes in a gas furnace, because we need 10 000 volts.

Can you get 10 000 volts from 24 volts? How could you have so many? How can you have so many they're, not even sharing? Okay? I have a question because you get from let's say from the city: you get whatever voltage, they give you 110. 120. Yes, and if you uh use a step up, uh transformer, do you get you get free power like you're? Getting more? I love it. That's where i'm going with this.

That's exactly where we're going with this so and gas furnace. We set up the 10 000 volts. Also, if you see neon lights, it's up at the 10 000 or even higher than that, but you step it up to a very high voltage to make the electricity jump or arc. Sometimes you have a spark in that and you're igniting the gas fuel mixture with that spark to make it ignite.

But do you get free power now? What is the uh formula for watts voltage times voltage times what i'm purchasing amperage volts times? Amps equals watts volts times, amps equals watts. Is that important, yes, cool? Let's do a little experiment. What do you guys say you want to do experiment sure, let's plug this guy in and let's calculate how many watts of power we have on this coil. So take the meter set it for volts.

Let's find out how many volts we have on our electrical load right here, all right right there and right there, how many volts we have 26 26, i better get 26. Yes, we got 26 volts. Now i don't know if we're gon na be able to read the amps, it's gon na be a very small amount. Let's clamp it around here.

Let's read the amps. What amps do we have here? One 1.1: we have that white board. We can write this down. So how many watts were using here - 1.1, one 1.1 amps? Wouldn't it yes, how many volts uh 26 26? Was it 26, so how many watts 28.6 28.6 28.6 watts close enough 1.1 amps and our voltage? How many volts we got? 26.

26.. So, what's 26 volts times, 1.1 amps is how many watts 28.6. Let's write that down 28.6! That's how many watts of power! Now, let's do something else, let's find out how many watts of power is coming into this we're going to need to use this guy now, because it's going to be a little tricky. So, let's check our voltage coming in check the voltage 122.

122.. This is such a small amount of amperage. If you clamp it here, your pawn, not gon na show anything. So, let's just clamp it so we can see it and what are you showing like point point? Twenty three: let's clamp it on this one that says times ten we'll get a more accurate number here.

What do you got? Two point. Four. Two point: four: we're gon na move the decimal over one spot so 0.24, so 0.24 amps. How many watts do we got 29.28 29.28? Now we rounded a little bit right, but what else we have the same amount of wattage going in and the same amount of wattage coming out.

Wattage is electrical energy. Did i lose any wattage? No, i did not. I didn't lose any wattage. The power coming in and the power coming out is the same.

What did change, though, voltage and the amperage? How many amps do we have coming into this 1.1 1.1? How many else do we have on the other side, uh 0.24 0.24, which had a faster amp flow amps going in the lower voltage had a faster amp flow. We had more amp flow on the low voltage side now notice. I have a transformer notice that i don't have a fuse on this side and i only have a fuse on this side. I have this three amp fuse on here.

I put the fuse on the low voltage side because, even though i dropped my voltage down what happened to my amperage goal, stop it goes up, so i'm going to have faster, amp flow on this side. That's where i put my my fuse at. I saw a guy wants to put his fuse on this side by the time i got three amps on this side. What do you think my wattage would do? Go up what would happen? My hamburger on the other side go up even more.

Let's, let's do some math, you guys don't be afraid of math. Let's do some math, let's assume just draw your line here. Let's do some assumptions. Let's assume that i had three amps coming in, so three amps coming in times are same voltage.

Oh sorry, we're on this side, three amps coming in our same voltage of 122.. So if i put my fuse on this side, three amps and we had 122 volts, how many watts would that be 326.? How much 366. it's a lot of sort of watch, so write down 366. So we know 366..

Now, let's do the math. On the other side. We know that our 24, our low voltage, would be the same. So let's keep it at 26 volts.

So we had 366 watts, so let's take put 366 in your calculator because our watts are going to be the same. Whatever watch comes in is what's coming out now, divide that by our volts of 26., so write down 14.07. So if i had a short on this side - and my fuse is on this side - it'd have to be three amps before this fuse would blow how many amps are going on this side. 366, 14.7.

So, to have three amps on the high voltage side, that would mean i would have 14 amps on the low voltage side. Everything would already be on fire. This is why we put that three amp fuse on the low voltage side. I had a friend of mine he's like ty, i'm really starting electricity.

I don't understand why i'm using three amps on this low voltage stuff. That's a lot of amperage. I should amperage the electricity. I need to reduce the amps, my low voltage side.

It's like whoa whoa, whoa whoa, just because it's three amps over here. Does that mean it's a lot of power? No, no! It's! Our wattage was only what 29 28 29 very small amount of wattage, so don't get hung up and thinking just because i increase voltage or decrease voltage that i'm changing the power. What is the formula for power volts time, amperage bolts times? Amps? That's what that's electrical power, the same power n is the same power out. So if i was you asked, would we get free power if i was to increase it to 10 000 volts? How many amps would it be? You know i do the math right now, but a very small amount right, a very small amount.

If i increase the voltage a whole lot. What does my amperage do goes down goes way down? I would have very little amperage, so here's what's cool your transformers will have a rating. It's called a va rating uh v for volts a for amps. What happens when you have two numbers side by side in a form of the dot in the middle means? Multiply.

So what if i have v right next to a would that be a mathematical equation? Yes, volt amps! So if i had multiplied volts times amps, what would i get? What's yes, what's? What's? What's it's watts right, so transformers have a va rating aka watt rating and the watt rating would be 45 or 75 va and when you're changing out a transformer. It's important to know that number, because if it's only rated for 40, say 45 watts and all of your low voltage load, you need 75 watts. Is it going to have? Is it going to be built strong enough? No you're going to have problems. Sometimes you may say you may add some low voltage circuits to the unit.

You got to make sure your transformer can handle the watts or the va of that unit. So va volt answer this one's worn off. I've had it for so long. You can't see it anymore, but it's a very low, volt amp rating.

In my truck i only kept. I think it was 75 va transformers, because a 75 va transformer handle 75 va loads and also a 45 va load just because it will handle 75 watts. Does it mean i have to flow 75 watts through it mold the story? Is it takes high voltage steps it down to low voltage? Your amperage does not mean power, and your voltage does not mean power if you're replacing a transformer, it's important to match up your voltage coming in and your va. Okay, it's an electromagnet inductive load, i'm inducing electromagnetic field and that electromagnetic field is being induced into the secondary coil.

So who was it that asked about low voltage, circuitry? Okay, so does that help a little bit so don't be afraid of the volts and the amps? You need to be thinking i'm going to have my this is my new source, i'm starting out with approximately 24 volts here, i'm gon na go into a switch out of a switch into my load out of my load home to the opposite side. If, if i have a call where a transformer has blown up good, yes and i put another transformer - is how can i figure out if i, if i'm going to blow up the next transformer, it's a great question, but let's back up a little bit, if a Transfer blows out: why did it blow out? You have too much amperage the speed of electron flow. That's what's going to burn out! So if i have a transformer and i it goes bad, i got to replace it. That means my amps are flowing too fast.

Is there any kind of device that i can put on that protects? My amp flow, a fuse, a fuse bam right here now. This goes to the first thing is: never replace a transformer without adding a fuse just never now you can buy these fancy fuse holders, but look at this: this is this is really cool. You get two of these connectors and every technicians that have these in their truck of one kind or another, and it's cool, because the fuse would just slide in there's no reason to not have a fuse. You can just simply slide it in now.

You can tape these. You can do all kinds of other things, but bam. I've added a fuse that easy. So there's no reason we can't add a fuse.

Every single transformer should have a fuse. So if you're blowing a transformation, first, hey, let's put a fuse in because if we pop fuses they're a lot cheaper than pop and transformers and it's a lot easier to replace the fuse in the transformer. But then what do we got to do? Yes, figure out what blew it, something killed this guy i didn't just like you know what i've had enough with my low voltage life. I'm done! No, somebody came and said i don't like you anymore.

Boom took him out something killed it you, your job is to find the murderer. What killed this guy, so you put a new one in you want to protect him. This is his protection they're, going to watch him 24 7 to make sure he's safe, you're going to find out what killed this guy now, what killed it is going to be either a short to grounds like a wire rubbing through a cabinet the wires inside the Condenser look over here in this condenser. Do you see any wires in there at all? Let's this one's, even better! Look at this one look inside.

Do you see any wires in there the compressor compressor wires? There's a high pressure, switch a low pressure, switch there's a solenoid for reversing valve, there's all kinds of wires in there. What happens if those wires rub against one of those pipes, it's going to meld the insulation or eventually rub the insulation off the copper. It's going to be a direct short from that to the copper or it'll even rub a hole in the copper we went through. I think four calls in this week that we had issues with rubbing where the wire rubbed out in maintenance.

We ended up having to seal up that wire and make sure the wire wouldn't rub against the copper if you're looking for a short you're going to be checking those low voltage wires inside the unit outside the unit notice, how these wires are exposed. Look at this look how somebody burned it. That's a prime example. Somebody used a grommet right here to make sure it doesn't rub, but i've seen tons of times where this wire rubs into the metal.

Let's see where it goes on the other side that goes over here, we go around the top. We come in the top here. Let's feel where this wire comes in. Is there anything for it to rub on i'm vertically challenged? Is there a grommet good, but look at this little knockout right here.

You guys see this little knockout a lot of text. You'll see this little knockout. What they'll do is they'll, knock that out and they'll run their low voltage wire through there. Now that wire's rubbing against now, you give it a short path.

Electricity can flow from that low voltage wire to the metal boom shorts out. That's an example, so shorts you're, looking for anything like that also stripping this low voltage wire, we have a piece of low voltage, wire, a little thermostat wire and a wire stripper when people strip thermostat wire. They notoriously do this. We have some with the outer coating on it still.

This is what a lot of people do. They'll, do this right here: they'll take the wire like this strip, the outer, and then they do this. Well. What they don't see is what's happening right here, so we're going to pull this out now, look at all those little nicks i left on there.

This happens. A lot people strip bar like that and these nicks will end up touching each other and that will short it out. Here's how i like to strip wire all right. You grab this wire, probably when you're not further.

The string actually is what you're supposed to do. We'll do it proper. We pull that wire back, but here's what else i like to do i like to take this tailings and i like to bend it back over itself. Look at that! Isn't that pretty now, i know for sure the next guy coming behind me knows that it wasn't stripped and now i'm going to cut this tail out of the way, because i don't hate that when the tail is left there now look at that.

I know that. There's no short right there. I know it's clean and pure and ready to go now. I can cut all these nicks off and strip them individually, but that's a huge issue where people do that right.

There they take and they cut this, and they do it like right here, nope that was actually done fairly nice. That was good, so, but they'll short right there and the next thing you'll have is a contactor. That's shorted out the coil like we had this one has burned up it burns out. The resistive is too low.

So if you're having a short and a low voltage size, it blew a transformer you're, going to put a fuse you're going to find it you're going to inspect all of these little locations all these spots everywhere. It goes through metal and then you can ohm out all your low voltage loads. You can ohm out the reversing valve. You can own out the contact you can own these out.

Let's say you don't know what your contactor should be go to the truck grab, a new one, hey. Let me check it. Oh well, look i'm getting 10 ohms there, i'm getting only three here. Those contacts are pulled in there's a lot of heat right there.

It's very thin wire. You lose the insulation pretty rapidly. So, if you're having an issue when you're contacting blue find out, why now here's the thing you'll put a new contact? Oh, i couldn't find it. There's always somebody working that says: oh ty, i couldn't find it and they know not to tell me that, because i will jump down their throat like no, you go back and you find it here's what happens.

Sometimes it only does it in windy days when the wind's rubbing and pushing against it. Sometimes it's only when there's a lot of humidity in the air and it actually causes the short or sometimes only when it rains just because you couldn't find it today doesn't mean it's not there. Just because you couldn't find the murderer doesn't mean one doesn't exist. So you find that you stay and you find it or you come back in a call back for free on your own time and find it on a saturday night at three in the morning.

It will be there, you find it then or later, but don't be afraid. Take your time go through, follow the circuits. Follow the wires go through and follow everywhere. It goes and eventually you will find it and the more that you do it.

The more experience you have the easier it comes. You start finding common spots, hey, i know where the shorts hang out. They like to hang out with this guy cuts the wire that's where the shorts taking. I want to go.

Look there. First, i'm going to go. Look in that condensing unit where chaor runs that wire right up against that suction line and it vibrates and rubs against it. I know that's a bad place for you, i'm going to go check that out we're going to go, see what's happening in there right.

There's! There's common place, you start to look for sometimes there's companies, you know hey this company. I know they installed it. I'm gon na go ahead and look for this short before it even happens. It's gon na be right here.

These are things you get used to seeing. Thank you, ty for giving this class click the link down in the description in order to find and subscribe to his channel and we'll catch you on the next video thanks for watching our video. If you enjoyed it and got something out of it, if you wouldn't mind hitting the thumbs up button to like the video subscribe to the channel and click, the notifications bell to be notified when new videos come out, hvac school is far more than a youtube channel. You can find out more by going to, which is our website and hub for all of our content, including tech tips, videos, podcasts and so much more.

You can also subscribe to the podcast on any podcast app of your choosing. You can also join our facebook group if you want to weigh in on the conversation yourself thanks again for watching.

35 thoughts on “Transformers, inductance and common electrical problems w/ ty”
  1. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Bible Bloopers says:

    I watched 2 minutes of this and had to turn it off. I can't take listening to someone talk through a mask

  2. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Clasped003 says:

    Good tip on the 75va xfmers. I used to do commercial lol thats all i used to carry anyways. Gtfo of here with that 50va nonsense. 75va resettable fuse all the way!

  3. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Clasped003 says:

    Eugene khutoryanski has a great video on electrical basics and transformers also. Amazing time we live in where we get such good information for free Are you in Orleans ?

  4. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Craig Erickson says:

    Brian , craig, and Ty all teaching together is the the freaking justice league.

  5. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Frank says:

    Yikes! Underrated on the likes

  6. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Nina McClure says:

    Great video, I could actually hear him through the mask and he keeps you engaged. Most people might know this but all your electronics that you plug into the wall need transformers to step down the 120 ac to something smaller and then it gets switched to DC with some diodes.

  7. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Ur mother says:

    Cant believe this school is literally 15 min from me! I went to FCC and was robbed of both a hvac diploma and 20k

  8. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Nanda Davis says:

    This was an incredibly informative video, thanks guys!

  9. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars H-H Hidalgo says:

    Magnificent I can't wait to start of technical school 🎓 first I have to learn more English before I do it Service area Kanata??

  10. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Jammin Wrenches says:

    Alot of effort in making these videos for us. Not only educational but also entertaining. I see you back there checking on the cameras ; Thank you for all you do!

  11. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars AZ Aztec says:

    It pains me to see intellectual men forced to wear muzzles while engaging in critical thinking.. shameful unionism

  12. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Anthony Santa says:

    Ty is amazing! Please do more videos with him. He is the reason I am in the industry

  13. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Gostevo79 says:

    I’ve had a few transformers with resettable breakers trip. All so far have been do to the control boards on trane units. My question is is it primarily the low voltage side of transformers that trip those type transformers?

  14. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Jim Nolan says:

    I understand that high amperage is what is dangerous with electricity so why is it safe to touch the low voltage side of the transformer even though amperage is higher.

  15. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Donnie Robertson says:

    Great job and video like always

  16. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars ClickyMcbuttons says:

    Jandy was here, and there.

  17. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Tomorrowsyoutube says:

    The Tyman returns!!

  18. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars HVAC-RA says:

    Super class!

  19. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Michael Staley says:

    Great video. You can tell he enjoys teaching people about electricity.

  20. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Michael Costello says:

    Can the low voltage wires short to ground if the low voltage side of transformer is not grounded. I think all transformers have the low voltage side grounded but i am just guessing. Please clarify this. Thank you

  21. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars شَريف مُحَمَّد says:

    Why are you all wearing masks? Service area Nepean??

  22. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Mini 6 says:

    Such a shame they have to wear mask. It almost throws the whole video off. SMH lol bro this couldn’t be Texas. You get laughed at for wearing a mask around here. And before you comment @ me id ga f what you gotta say. Service area Barrhaven??

  23. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars sxfngrs22 says:

    I really enjoy his video. That was a really good explanation but I feel you left out an important step. It would have helped to go over how to properly size the fuse to protect the transformer. Thanks to everyone involved for such great content!

  24. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars 00ABBITT00 says:

    He’s so good at teaching

  25. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars ninjapangan says:

    Ty is a great teacher

  26. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Eassyheat/ Cooling says:

    Ty is the man "murderer" 😂🤣
    Stay safe.
    Retired(werk'n) keyboard super tech.
    Wear your safety glasses.

  27. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Ethereal Rose says:

    Volt amperes is NOT the same as watts In Alternating Currents. The former indicates apparent power and the latter for real power.

  28. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars 潘Kiet says:

    Ty is the man! Are you in Barrhaven ?

  29. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Mr Green says:

    Why are they called transformers they don't transform voltage Are you in Ottawa ?

  30. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars David Rivas says:

    This was nice. I learned something 👍🏻

  31. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Jimmy Lee says:

    I would like to take this classes where your locations in Florida please ?

  32. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars PotentialHVAC says:

    So wire coming off transformer connected to say " 240v terminal stepping down to 24v " don't need to be a thicker gauge because the amps are low???

  33. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Patrick Caldarone says:

    I wish I had an instructor as great as Ty 25 years ago. I’m learning more now than ever.

  34. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Jeff B says:

    Love Ty’s enthusiasm

  35. Avataaar/Circle Created with python_avatars Nathaniel Sixolile Majezi says:

    Which side would be right to put the fuse on the transformer??

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